top of page

Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales

Restructured Clinical Scales

These scales are more obvious (and more fakable than the MMPI-2 Clinical Scales). They are meant to be more distinct, and supposedly clearer forms of the Clinical scales (Tellegen, Ben-Porath, McNulty, Arbisi, Graham, and Kaemmer, 2003).  They may be helpful as sub-scales to the MMPI-2 Clinical scales, but not as separate clinical scales.  They are redundant to the content scales, and are less sensitive to psychopathology than the MMPI-2 Clinical Scales (See my Blog).

RCd- dem- Demoralization- (24 items)- a measure of overall emotional discomfort; a general psychopathology factor used to compare with the other scales in which this factor was removed for the most part.   Feeling discouraged, demoralized, pessimistic, poor self-esteem, and over whelmed.

RC1- som- Somatic Complains- (27 items)- very similar to it’s Clinical Scale counterpart, Hypochondrasis-1,  excessive preoccupation with bodily and health concerns.  Complains of weakness, fatigue, and chronic pain.  Prone toward somatization and may experience physical problems as a result of stress.  This scale does not rule out physical disease.

RC2- lpe- Low Positive Emotions- (17 items)- depressed, pessimistic, withdrawn, anhedonia, bored, low energy, and indecisive.

RC3- cyn- Cynicism- (15 items)- this is the “Naively Trusting” sub-scale of Hysteria-3 standing on its head.  Since the Clinical Hysteria scale reflects the complex dynamics of Hysteria, this scale represents the insightless purification of scale 3, and therefore it has nothing to do with Hysteria.  It is a measure of cynicism.  This scale is unlikely to be helpful in understanding elevations in scale 3.  The Hysteric denies aggressive motives and converts aggression into somatization.  This scale is simply the items about the belief that other people are untrustworthy, dishonest, uncaring, and exploitive. (See: Gordon, R.M. (2006) False Assumptions about Psychopathology, Hysteria and the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales. Psychological Reports, 98, 870-872.)

RC4- asb- Antisocial Behavior- (22 items)- Measures aggressiveness, antagonism, argumentativeness, tendency to lie, cheat, difficulty conforming to societal norms, acting out, substance abuse, family conflicts and poor achievement.

RC6- per- Ideas of Persecution- (17 items)- similar to Pa Obvious or Pa1, measures persecutory ideation.

RC7- dne- Dysfunctional Negative Emotions- (24 items)- anxiety, irritability, unhappiness, helplessness, rumination, worry, over-sensitivity, guilt, intrusive thoughts.

RC8- abx- Aberrant Experiences- (18 items)- hallucinations, bizarre perceptual experiences, delusional beliefs, impaired reality testing; scorers T65-74 may have Schizotypal traits, and scorers >T74 may be psychotic. 

RC9- hpm- Hypomanic Activation- (28 items)- grandiose, sensation seeking, risk-taking, poor impulse control, euphoria, excitation, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and aggression. Scorers >T74 may be experiencing a hypomanic or manic episode.

bottom of page