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Gordon, R. M. (2001). MMPI/MMPI-2 Changes in Long-Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. Issues in Psychoanalytic Psychology, 23,(1 and 2), 59-79.
TEST 2001 Publication

Gordon, R.M. (2000). “Boundary: Protection, Limits and Safety” The Pennsylvania Psychologist, June 2000

Boundary: Protection, Limits and Safety
Robert M. Gordon, Ph.D., ABPP

Psychotherapists now know that boundary violations in the therapeutic setting are bad, but most can’t tell you why. Therapists will say it is because of the loss of objectivity and potential for exploitiveness. True, but there is so much more to it. It is critical to understand something about development first to really understand what it means to the patient. Theories of therapy that are not based on the developmental model can’t really explain why boundary violations traumatize.



Bleger, H. (1967). Psychoanalysis of the Psychoanalytic Frame. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 48, 511-519.

Freud, S (1913). On Beginning the Treatment (Further Recommendations on the Technique of Psychoanalysis, I.). Standard

Edition 12; 121-144.

Gordon, R.M. (1993). Ethics Based on Protection of the Transference. Issues in Psycholanalytic Psychology, 15, 2, 95-105.

Langs, R. J. (1973). The Technique of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, Volume I. New York; Jason Aronson.

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