top of page

Brief Interpretations

"MMPI- 2 HIGH SCALE CODE INTERPRETATION" The typical person with a similar profile configuration: 

Look for the two highest scores >T64 on the basic MMPI-2 scales (1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9,and 0 ). 

If this criteria is not met, then go to the next rule: if L.>6, K>22, L and K T> F Tscore, F-K<-19, Repression >T69 and Anxiety < T60, then shift the criteria down to include>T62. 

If these criteria are not met, print statements from any single elevated scale . 

If 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9, < T65, and any L>6, or K>22, or L and K both > F, -Repression>T69 and-Anxiety < T60, or F-K-19, print, "Clinical scales may be submerged due to defensiveness. Interpret as a subtle profile. Look at the extra scales for interpretation. If this is not a high functioning individual ( i.e. Global Assessment of Functioning >70), consider a test set of underreporting psychopathology, or a personality trait of denial." 

("XY/YX" means the two highest clinical scales beyond T64." X' " or "spike" means the only clinical scale beyond T64.) 

If K<10 print "Blunt, critical, inadequate defenses, poor self concept, low ego strength." 

If 3,4 or 8 < T45 always print "Overly conventional and constricted." 

Scale 1' If between T60 and T65, print "Uses somatization and repression to cope. May over focus on symptoms, use reality assurances. Rule out actual organic disease or injury." 

If age >69 add, "Aged individuals may elevate this scale by 10T, due to physical aging, not personality." If between T66-T75 add "May demand treatment but needs to derogate any assistance. May not be psychologically minded. Complaints are often an indirect expression of dependency or hostility." 

If >T75, add to above, "Look for somatic delusions, or exaggeration." 

If >T100 and L>T65, add, "Rule out malingering," 

12/21 - "Hypochondriacal with somatization, exaggerates symptoms, complains of pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression; passive-dependent, frequently seeks other medical opinions when psychological factors are suggested. Can not see problems as psychological in nature. Medical intervention should be conservative. Prognosis is guarded." If Scale Sc6 is >T64, also print "Look for somatic delusions." 

13/31- "Possibly converting psychological problems into physical complaints; denial and repression makes psychological intervention difficult. Threatened by any suggestion of psychological problems. Likely to develop actual physical symptoms under stress." (Add only if age >60, "Older patients are more likely to have organic involvement.") "Prognosis for psychotherapy is guarded, but supportive or directive therapy during crisis periods may reduce symptoms." If scale 7 is >T64 add "Look for possible panic attacks, severe anxiety, and phobias". If Scale Sc6 >T64, add "Look for somatic delusions." 14/41 "Chronic hypochondriacal personality. Irritable, prone to psychosomatic problems, manipulative,egocentric, pessimistic, poor insight, resistant." If PdO>T64 add, " Hostility and projection of blame." 

16/61 "Hypochondriacal, possible somatic delusions, overly sensitive, projection of blame, stubborn, poor insight, resistant." 

17/71 "Hypochondriasis chronic anxiety with obsessive-compulsive features. Very demanding, resistant." 

18/81 "Pain, fatigue, possible somatic delusions, lack of trust, socially inadequate, resistant." 

19/91 "Hypochondriacal, tense, restless, agitated. Psychosomatic complaints, resistant." Add "Passive-aggressive" if 4>T64. 

Scale 2' 

If T60-T64, print "Moderately depressed, worrying, and pessimistic. Prognosis for insight therapy is usually good." 

If >T64, print instead "Very depressed. Worried, pessimistic, self-depreciation, internalizes stress. Likely to have difficulty in making decisions." 

23/32 - "Depression and hysteroid defenses, various psychosomatic complaints, self-doubt, immaturity, apathy, tension, dependency, often resistant to any psychological interpretation." If F and 8>T69, or DO >T65 add "Look for a major depression." 

24/42 - "Depressed and hostile, acting out with later remorse; self-defeating behaviors; resistant, low frustration tolerance. Family difficulties, immature, dependent, egocentric." If F and 8>T69, add "Poor reality testing." 

26/62 - "Extremely sensitive, depressed; anger is channeled into both self blame and other blame. Feels victimized." If PaO>T64 add, " Paranoid trends." If F, 8 or 9>T69, BIZ>T65, add "Poor reality testing". 

27/72 - "Anxious and depressed, psychosomatic complaints, low self-esteem, intropunitive, obsessive-compulsive." If8>T69 or F>T69, or DO>T65 add "Look for a major depression." 

28/82 - "Depression, anxiety, agitation, confusion, suspicious, psychosomatic complaints, possible major depression, fear of relationships, resistant." If F>T69, BIZ>T65, add "Poor reality testing". 

29/92 - "Depression and agitation, psychosomatic complaints, check for agitated depression, or bipolar disorder." 

Scale 3' 

If T60-T65, print "Somatization during periods of stress." 

If >T65, add "Converts denied psychological conflicts into physical symptoms." If HyS >HyO add,"Very naive and overly trusting. Repression of aggression. "If HyO=/>HyS add,"Very resistant to insight. Utilizes denial of aggression. Strong dependency needs, naive, seeks concrete solutions to psychological problems." 

34/43 - "Passive-aggressive, episodic acting out, poor impulse control, seductive, dissociations, conversion reactions, resistant to insight." If PdO>T65 and male, add "Look for explosive hostility." 

36/63 - " Psychosomatic complaints, externalizes blame, resistant to any psychological insights." If PaO>T65 add, "Hostile and suspicious." 

37/73 - "Psychosomatic complaints, anxiety, denial of psychological problems." 

38/83 - "Depression, anxiety, psychosomatic complaints, dissociative reactions, somatic delusions, hostile, dependent, little insight." If F>T69, BIZ>T65, add "Poor reality testing". 

39/93 - "Psychosomatic complaints, anxiety attacks, conversion reactions, irritable, aggression compensating for an underlying dependency." 

Scale 4' 

If T60-T64, print "Non-conforming, energetic" Do not print if 2>T59, or 3 or 8 < T45.If T65-T79, print instead "Low tolerance for frustration, acting out, interpersonal conflicts." 

If >T79, or PdO >T64 add "Poor judgment, impulsive, hostile, egocentric, anti-authority, addictive tendencies." 

46/64 - "Hostile, passive-aggressive, externalizes blame, very demanding, resentful, poor relationships, psychosomatic problems, prognosis for psychotherapy is guarded." If Scale Sc6 is >T65, add "Look for somatic delusions." 

47/74 - "Anxiety, anger, acting out and periods of guilt." 

48/84 - "Psychosomatic complaints, poor ability to relate to others, thought disorder, acting out, prognosis for psychotherapy is guarded." 

49/94 - "Impulsive, acting out, narcissistic, prognosis for psychotherapy is guarded." If Scale 6 is>T64, add "Look for possible explosive outbursts of aggression." Add, if 4 or 9 is >T74, or PdO>T64 "Irresponsible, resentful, manipulative, hostile, poor judgment, tendencies toward substance abuse." 

Mf1 - If >T65 print,"Hypersensitive, easily hurt, anxious, dependent, low moral." 

Scale 6' 

If T60-T64, print "Overly Sensitive." 

If T65-T75 and PaS>PaO add, "Thin skinned, confused about trust, sets self up to feel victimized." 

If T65-75 and PaS=/ < PaO add, " Projection of blame and hostility, paranoid features." 

If >T75, PaO>T65 add," Look for delusions of persecution and maltreatment."67/76 - "Tense, rigid, overly sensitive, suspicious, indirectly hostile, prognosis for psychotherapy is guarded." 

68/86 - "Depression, suspiciousness, thought disorder, delusions, poor reality testing." If BIZ>T65 add, "May be psychotic." 

69/96 - "Extreme anxiety, hostility, suspiciousness, delusions, grandiosity, poor reality testing. Prognosis for psychotherapy is guarded." If BIZ>T65 add, "May be psychotic." 

Scale 7' 

If T60-T64, print "Uses rationalization and intellectualization." 

If T65-T75 add "Psychosomatic complaints, perfectionistic, self-critical, anxious, indecisive." 

If >T75, add "Susceptible to phobias and obsessions." 

78/87 - If Scale 7>8, print "Psychosomatic complaints, anxiety, depression, withdrawn, obsessive, confused, poor social adjustment." 

If Scale 8 =/>7, print instead, "Poor social adjustment, thought disorder, poor reality testing, confusion, anxiety, depression, prognosis for psychotherapy is guarded."If BIZ>T65 add, "May be psychotic." 

79/97 - "Psychosomatic complaints, chronically anxious, agitated, impulsive acts followed by guilt feelings." 

Scale 8' 

If T60-T64, print "Tends to be over invested in fantasy." 

If >T64, add "Eccentric, confused, withdrawn, may have a thought disorder." 

If > T79 and F>T69, add "Poor reality testing". 

If BIZ > T65 add, "May be psychotic." 

89/98 - "Confusion, anxiety, depression, hyperactive, emotionally labile, thought disorder, hostility, poor reality testing, projection, insightless and resentful. Prognosis for psychotherapy is guarded." 

If BIZ>T65 add, "May be psychotic." 

Scale 9' 

If < T44 and 1,2,4,6,7,8, all < T60. print "Depressed." 

If T60-T64, print, "Active and outgoing." 

IfT65-T70, print instead "Hyperactive, agitated." If 9>T70, MaO>T65, add "Irritable, impulsive, acting-out, grandiose." 

If >T80, add "Poor reality testing." 

Scale Si-0 

If T<44, print "Socially outgoing, need for social approval." 

If T44-T59,print"Capacity to maintain rewarding social relationships, if ego-syntonic pathology is ruled out."(But do not print this if L, F,1,4,6,8,9,>T64; K<10) 

If T60-64, print "Shy and reserved in certain social situations." 

If>T65,print instead "Introverted and shy, difficulties expressing self to others."

bottom of page